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How to Disease Management-(Principles, Practices)

Disease Management – Principle 

 1) Management Planning Against a disease or for a Crop.

 2) Some Considerations in Plant Disease Management.

 3) Disease Cycle disease Control Relationship:-

     a) Identification of the cause of the disease.
     b) Mode of perennation and dissemination of the infectious agent of the disease.
     c) Host-parasite retationship and means of secondary spread.
    d) Effect of environment on pathogenesis in the plant and spread of the disease in the plant population.

 4) Base of Disease Management Principle:-

     a) Immunization:-
         Ø Induction of resistance
             i. Genetic manipulation
             ii. Systemic acquired resistance
        Ø Chemotherapy: Use of systemic fungicides and antibiotics

    b) Prophylaxis:
        Ø Legislation: quarantine, seed inspection and certification for exclusion of the pathogen.
        Ø Protection:
            i. Cultural
           ii. Chemical
        Ø Eradication:
            a) Rotation
            b) Sanitation
            c) Eradication of alternate and collateral hosts
            d) Chemical

 5) Exclusion of the Pathogen:-

     a) Quarantine.
     b) Inspection and Certification.
     c) Seed Treatment.
     d) Eradication of insect Vectors.

 6) Avoidance of the Pathogen:-

     a) Choice of Geographic Area
     b) Selection of Field
     c) Choice of Time of Planting
     d) Disease Escaping Varieties
     e) Selection of Seed and Planting Material

 7) Eradication of The Pathogen:-

      a) Biological Control of Pathogens
      b) Crop Rotation
      c) Removal and Destruction of Diseased Plants or Plant Organs
         Ø Roguing
         Ø Eradication of Alternate and Collateral Hosts
         Ø Sanitation
      d) Heat and chemical treatment of Diseased Plants
      e) Soil Tretments

 8) Protective Measures:-

    a) Chemical Treatment
    b) Control of Insect Vectors
    c) Modification of the Environments
    d) Modification of Host Nutrition

 9) Development of Resistance In the Host:-

     a) Selection and Hybridization
     b) Genetic Manipulation throught Biotechnology
     c) Induction of Acquired Resistance
     d) Resistance throught Chemotherapy
     e) Resistance throught Host Nutrition

 10) Therapy of Diseased Plant

       a) Chemotherapy
       b) Heat or Thermotherapy
       c) Tree Surgery

Disease Management- The Practices :-
 

1) Cultural Pratices For Disease Management:-

    a) Production and Use of Disease –Free propagating Material:-
        i. Dry Climate for Seed Production
       ii. Isolation Distance For Seed Plots
      iii. Inspection of Seed Plots
      iv. Drying and Ageing of seed
       v. Cleaning of Seed b
      vi. Thermal And Chemical treatment of seed
     vii. Site and treatment of nursery beds
    viii. Adjustment of harvesting time of the crop

2) Adjustement of Crop Culture to Minimize Disease Incidence:-

    a) Crop rotation .
    b) Fallowing.
    c) Monoculture
   d) Mixed Cropping
   e) Adjustment of date of showing
   f) Adjustment of Depth of seeding
  g) Plant spacing – rate of showing and density of stand
  h) Management of irrigation
   i) Management of host Nutrition
   j) Management of soil acidity and Alkalinity
  k) Organic amendments of soil
   l) Management of the top soil
 m) Choice of crop variety

3) Field And Plant Sanitation:-

    a) Management of Crop debris
    b) Management of the diseased plant
    c) Management of irrigation water
    d) Crop-free period and crop free zone
    e) Creating barriers by non-host or dead hosts
    f) Decoy crops, trap and antagonistic crops
   g) Management of weed, collateral and volunteer host plants
   h) Management of insect vectors
    i) Harvesting time and practices

4) Biological Control:-

   a) Destruction of Surviving Propagules
   b) Prevention of Inoculum Formation
   c) Reduction of Vigour or Virulence of the Pathogen
   d) Biological protection of Planting Material
   e) Biological Protection of Foliage and Blossoms
   f) Biological control of post-harvest fruits Decay
   g) Crops Protection and Induced Resistance

5) Host Resitence for Disease Management:-

    a) Genetic Resistance
    b) Development of Resistance Varieties
        i. Selection
       ii. Mutation
      iii. Hybridization

   c) Breeding for Resistance using Biotechnology
   d) Effect of Environments on Expression of Resistance
   e) Cause of Failure of Resistance
   f) Management of resistance Varieties
  g) Induction of resistance by transfer of Microbial Genes
  h) Induction of Resistance by Means other then gene manipulation

6) Disease Management throught Toxic Chemicals:-

    a) Functions of Antipathogen Chemicals
    b) Factors Affecting Efficacy of Fungicides

7) Synthetic Fungicides, Nematicides And Antibiotics in Use:-

    a) Sulphur Fungicides
    b) Copper Fungicides
    c) Quinone Fungicides
    d) Benzene Fungicides
    e) Heterocyclic Nitrogen Compounds
    f) Organo Tin Compounds

I. SYSTEMIC fUNGICIDES :-
   Ø Oxathiins, Carboxins and Carboxamides
   Ø Benzimidazoles [Carbendazim(MBC), Thiabendazole(TBZ), Thiophantes
   Ø Acylalanines or Acylanilides
   Ø Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibiting Fungicides
   Ø Organic Phosophates
   Ø Miscellaneous Systemic Fungicides

II. ANTIBIOTICS [ Sterptomicin, Cycloheximide(Actidione, Actispray, Actidione RZ) ]

III. NEMATICIDES

8) Mode of Action

     I. Unspecifically Acting Fungicides – Inorganic copper , sulphur, mercury and organic compounds of mercury and sulphur have fairly nonspecific mode of action.

    II. The Speifically Acting of Systemic Fungicides
         i. Damage to cell membrane
        ii. Effects on enzyme systems
       iii. Inhibition of protein, RNA, DNA synthesis and nuclear division
       iv. Action on other systems

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Tag– How to Disease Management -(Principle, Practices) , Disease Management  Classification, B.sc(Hons)Part-3Sem-2, 
Reference– Introduction to Principles of Plant Pathology
#(R.S. Singh)
Write by SR Meena on Agrigyan.in
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