This article provides an overview of key vaccines used for cattle and buffaloes in India. It covers vaccines for common bovine diseases like anthrax, black quarter, hemorrhagic septicemia, brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, buffalopox, and Johne’s disease. The article describes each vaccine including the causative agent, route of administration, efficacy, and usage recommendations.
Anthrax spore vaccine
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium found in wild and domestic herbivores. It is most common in herbivores and can be controlled by annual vaccinations. In India, a live anthrax spore vaccine prepared from B. anthracis Sterne strain is available. The vaccine is given at 6 months and repeated annually before monsoon. Production began in 1956-57 and reached its peak in 1964-65. The vaccine has significantly reduced disease outbreaks in India.
Black Quarter (BQ) Vaccine
Black Quarter (BQ) is a disease affecting cattle, buffalo, and sheep caused by Clostridium chauvoei. It causes emphysematous swelling of muscles, particularly in the gluteal region. A vaccine is available in India, developed by ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, since 1906. The vaccine is administered at 6 months old and repeated annually. Production began in 1922-23 and increased to 17.0 lakh doses in 1959-60. Vaccination has reduced disease outbreaks in India.
Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) Vaccine
Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) is a disease caused by Pasteurella multocida type B:2, affecting cattle and buffalo in India. The vaccine, available in India as a formaldehyde inactivated culture with adjuvants, is administered at 4-6 months of age and repeated annually. The production of HS vaccine began in 1923-24 at ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, and by 1942-46, 64.0 lakh doses were produced. In 1956, adjuvanted HS vaccines began, and by 1962-63, 9.7 lakh doses of adjuvanted HS vaccine and 6.3 lakh doses of plain HS vaccine were produced.
Brucella abortus Vaccine (S-19 Strain)
Brucellosis is a prevalent bacterial zoonosis, affecting livestock and wild animals. With over 5,00,000 human cases reported annually, it is highly pathogenic. Vaccination has been effective in reducing the prevalence of bovine brucellosis, with the most effective vaccine being the live Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine. ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, adopted this vaccine in 1956 and produced it from 1962-63 to 2012-13, leading to a decrease in disease outbreaks in the country.
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Vaccine
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious animal disease causing significant economic loss in India. To control the disease, a polyvalent aqueous aluminium hydroxide and saponin adjuvanted vaccine was developed at ICAR-IVRI’s Bengaluru campus. From 1976 to 2010, 175 million doses of the vaccine were produced, reducing the incidence of FMD. The Indian government has harmonized the strains used for FMD vaccine production, and since October 2003, ICAR-DFMD has provided appropriate vaccine strains based on antigen matching studies to FMD vaccine manufacturers.
Buffalopox Vaccine (Live Attenuated; BPXV Vij/96 Strain)
Buffalopox is an infectious disease caused by the buffalopox virus, affecting buffaloes, cattle, and humans. It is enzootic in India and other buffalo-raiding countries. A live-attenuated vaccine was developed in 2009-10 using an indigenous isolate, and has a shelf-life of over a year at 4°C. This freeze-dried vaccine has significant economic benefits in India and neighboring countries where the disease is endemic.
Johne’s Disease Vaccine
Infection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic incurable granulomatous enteritis called Johne’s Disease (JD) in domestic livestock leading to reduction in productivity. The disease is transmitted through soil, water, grazing areas, milk, and colostrum to offspring. Controlling JD is crucial for the livestock industry’s economic viability and public health. ICAR-CIRG, Makhdoom has developed an inactivated JD vaccine for large and small ruminants, available in two forms.
frequently asked question
What is the causative agent of anthrax, and how is it controlled?
Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, and it can be controlled by annual vaccinations.
What is the causative agent of Black Quarter (BQ) disease?
Black Quarter (BQ) is caused by Clostridium chauvoei.
Who developed the Black Quarter (BQ) vaccine in India?
The vaccine was developed by ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, since 1906, and production began in 1922-23.